Haemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: neurological course and predictors of outcome

Intensive Care Med. 1999 Mar;25(3):293-9. doi: 10.1007/s001340050838.


The haemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) is a devastating disease. The aetiology of this syndrome is unknown, and, despite intensive treatment, the outcome is often fatal or associated with severe neurological sequelae.

Objective: To assess the neurological features and potential prognostic markers of the disease.

Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Division of Neuropaediatrics in a children's university hospital.

Patients and methods: Fourteen patients fulfilling the HSES criteria out of 42 children admitted with fever and shock to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit between 1986 and 1994, were analysed for clinical, biological, neuroradiological, EEG and neuropathological findings.

Results: The patients (age range from 2 to 33 months) were found at night or in the morning either comatous (n = 3) or convulsing (n = 11). All but one were healthy before admission, although eight had had a brief prodromal infectious disease. All were febrile (mean body temperature 39.9 degrees C +/-0.9 degrees). Seasonal clustering during the winter months was observed. Coma and seizures with frequent status epilepticus were the main neurological manifestations. All children recovered from their multiple organ failure within a few days. Seven died (50%); four survivors had neurological sequelae (29%) with a developmental quotient (DQ) of 50% or less in three and a DQ of 75% in one and three infants (21%) had normal outcomes. Computed tomography (CT) displayed a diffuse area of low density mainly in the cerebral cortex and intraventricular and parenchymal haemorrhages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed haemorrhagic cortical lesions. Postmortem examination of the brain conducted in three patients showed necrotic and haemorrhagic lesions, mainly in cortical areas. Comparison of the children with adverse outcome (death or neurological sequelae) with those with normal outcome revealed that predictors of poor outcome were status epilepticus (p = 0.003) and coma for more than 24 h (p = 0.01). Infants without disseminated intravascular coagulation, without a biphasic course and without brain hypodensities or haemorrhages on CT scans performed at least 4 days after onset had a normal neurodevelopmental outcome.

Conclusion: The central nervous system appeared to be the main target of the HSES lesions. The most common outcome was brain death or severe brain damage. Further studies with a larger sample are necessary to determine whether the prognostic indicators we identified are reliable.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Diseases / pathology
  • Brain Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coma
  • Disease Progression
  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Medical Records
  • Necrosis
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Seizures
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / diagnostic imaging
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / pathology
  • Shock, Hemorrhagic / physiopathology*
  • Syndrome
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed