The basis for T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire selection upon repeated antigenic challenge is unclear. We evaluated the avidity and dissociation kinetics of peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramer binding to antigen-specific T lymphocytes isolated following primary or secondary immunization. The data reveal a narrowing of the secondary repertoire relative to the primary repertoire, largely resulting from the loss of cells expressing TCRs with the fastest dissociation rates for peptide/MHC binding. In addition, T cells in the secondary response express TCRs of higher average affinity for peptide/MHC than cells in the primary response. These results provide a link between the kinetics and affinity of TCR-peptide/MHC interactions and TCR sequence selection during the course of an immune response.