The value of the platelet aggregation test, carbon 14-labeled serotonin release assay (SRA), and heparin-platelet factor 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (H-PF4 ELISA) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was evaluated by studying blood samples from 100 patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and categorized into 4 clinical groups: unlikely (n = 22), possible (34), probable (36), and definite (8) thrombocytopenia. Results of the platelet aggregation test were positive in 40 of 44 patients with probable or definite heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (sensitivity 91%) and in 5 of 22 unlikely to have heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (specificity 77%). The SRA exhibited sensitivity of 88% and negative predictive value of 81%, close to those values for the platelet aggregation test; specificity and positive predictive value were 100%. The sensitivity of the heparin-PF4 ELISA was 97%, with specificity 86%, and a positive correlation was recorded between the level of antibodies to H-PF4 and clinical score (P = 0.66). When ELISA was used with the platelet aggregation test or SRA, positive predictive value and specificity were 100% when both tests yielded positive results, and negative predictive value was 100% when both tests yielded negative results. A biologic flow chart was designed that presented a choice based on the results of the platelet aggregation test or SRA in association with ELISA, and enabled more accurate and specific identification of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.