Open water swimming. Particular medical problems

Clin Sports Med. 1999 Apr;18(2):337-47, vii. doi: 10.1016/s0278-5919(05)70149-6.


Open water swimming is a rapidly growing discipline within organized aquatic sport. Although endurance swimmers have been challenged by oceans, rivers, and lakes for many years, the real understanding of the science of the sport is a new development. Similarly, the clinical problems of long-distance swimming in frequently inhospitable environments now are recognized and managed more effectively. At all times, the health and safety of athletes remain our shared, prime concerns.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Safety Management
  • Swimming / physiology*
  • Swimming / trends