We examined the effects of short interpregnancy intervals on small-for-gestational age and preterm births in a biracial population using North Carolina birth certificate data from 1988 to 1994. We defined small-for-gestational age birth as being below the 10th percentile on a race-, sex-, and parity-specific growth curve after a gestation of 37-42 weeks. We defined preterm birth as a gestation of less than 37 weeks. We analyzed birth records from all eligible singleton births to black or white women ages 15-45 years after an interpregnancy interval of 0-3 months (N = 11,451) and a random sample of singleton births after an interval of 4-24 months (N = 23,118). We defined interpregnancy interval exposure categories as 0-3, 4-12, and 13-24 months. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio for small-for-gestational age births after interpregnancy intervals of 0-3 months compared with 13-24-month intervals was 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.4-1.8). The odds ratio for preterm birth after interpregnancy intervals of 0-3 months was 1.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.1-1.3). Odds ratios did not vary substantially by race for either outcome.