Human PACAP response gene 1 (p22/PRG1): proliferation-associated expression in pancreatic carcinoma cells

Pancreas. 1999 May;18(4):378-84. doi: 10.1097/00006676-199905000-00008.


p22/PACAP response gene-1 (PRG1) is a novel rat early response gene expressed during induction of proliferation and stress response. In humans, a homolog of p22/PRG1, designated IEX-1/DIF-2, exists, yet the exact function of this gene remains elusive. To characterize the expression of p22/PRG1 in human cancers, we analyzed the expression of p22/PRG1 in the human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines 818-4, PT45, and PancTu1. Serum or growth factors, like epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), rapidly and transiently induced transcription of p22/PRG1 in these cells, correlating with the mitogenic response. Treatment with TNF-alpha was followed by a rapid increase of p22/PRG1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in PT45 and Panc-Tul cells, which proliferate in the presence of TNF-alpha, but not in 818-4 cells, which are growth-inhibited when treated with TNF-alpha. Our findings suggest that human p22/PRG1 is expressed in various pancreatic carcinoma cells as a growth-associated early response gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Division
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology
  • Gene Expression*
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Neuropeptides / genetics*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Response Elements*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology


  • ADCYAP1 protein, human
  • Neuropeptides
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Hepatocyte Growth Factor