The gastrointestinal tract of a normal fetus is sterile. During the birth process and rapidly thereafter, microbes from the mother and surrounding environment colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the infant until a dense, complex microbiota develops. The succession of microbes colonizing the intestinal tract is most marked in early development, during which the feeding mode shifts from breast-feeding to formula feeding to weaning to the introduction of solid food. Dynamic balances exist between the gastrointestinal microbiota, host physiology, and diet that directly influence the initial acquisition, developmental succession, and eventual stability of the gut ecosystem. In this review, the development of the intestinal microbiota is discussed in terms of initial acquisition and subsequent succession of bacteria in human infants. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing succession and their health significance are discussed. The advantages of modern molecular ecology techniques that provide sensitive and specific, culture-independent evaluation of the gastrointestinal ecosystem are introduced and discussed briefly. Further advances in our understanding of developmental microbial ecology in the neonatal gastrointestinal tract are dependent on the application of these modern molecular techniques.