Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development

Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):1046S-1051S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/69.5.1046s.


The normal colonization of the mammalian intestine with commensal microbes is hypothesized to drive the development of the humoral and cellular mucosal immune systems during neonatal life and to maintain the physiologically normal steady state of inflammation in the gut throughout life. Neonatal conventionally reared mice and germ-free, deliberately colonized adult mice (gnotobiotic mice) were used to examine the efficacy of certain intestinal microbes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes / analysis
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology
  • Intestines / growth & development
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Intestines / microbiology*


  • Immunoglobulin Isotypes