Chronopharmacology of intravenous and oral modified release verapamil

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;47(4):413-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.1999.00910.x.


Aims: Using a stable isotope technique which allows simultaneous and differential measuring of orally and intravenously administered drugs we compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of unlabelled modified release verapamil p.o. (steady state) and deuterated verapamil i.v. (single dose) following morning and evening administration.

Methods: Twelve female and 12 male healthy volunteers were studied in a randomized, crossover design. During the last day of each treatment period (day 6 and day 10) pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PR interval) of verapamil were assessed; 1 h before ingestion of a new R/S-verapamil 240 mg modified release formulation (08.00 h vs 20.00 h) a single dose of 10 mg d7-R/S-verapamil was administered intravenously. Serum levels of unlabelled and labelled R/S-verapamil were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In selected samples of serum which were chosen at tmin,po and tmax,po the enantiomers were separated by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography in order to calculate R- to S-verapamil serum concentration ratios.

Results: We observed no significant differences in pharmacokinetics (AUCpo, Cmax, tmax, CLo, F and R/S enantiomer ratio) between morning and evening treatment with modified release verapamil and there was no influence of time of dosing on mean prolongation of PR interval. AUCiv, CL, Vss and d7-R/d7-S enantiomer ratio following verapamil i.v. did not show circadian variation. t1/2 was slightly but statistically significantly increased after the morning infusion. PR-prolongation was significantly greater after verapamil i.v. in the morning than in the evening. The 90% confidence intervals of the differences between morning and evening administration in AUCpo, Cmax and AUCiv were within the equivalence range of 0.8-1.25.

Conclusions: Time of dosing has no significant influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of this new modified release formulation of verapamil. Circadian variation in presystemic metabolism of verapamil was not observed.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Adult
  • Biological Availability
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacokinetics*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Electrocardiography / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Male
  • Sex Factors
  • Verapamil / administration & dosage
  • Verapamil / pharmacokinetics*
  • Verapamil / pharmacology


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Verapamil