Effect of race and ethnicity on outcomes in arthritis and rheumatic conditions

Curr Opin Rheumatol. 1999 Mar;11(2):98-103. doi: 10.1097/00002281-199903000-00003.


Examination of racial and ethnic differences in outcome from arthritis and rheumatic conditions can provide important clues to cause. This article reviews literature dealing with ethnic differences in the outcomes of disability, pain and pain coping, psychological adjustment and dysfunction, quality of life, and work disability. Future studies that acknowledge the interactive effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic, biologic, and sociocultural influences and that include growing segments of the population, such as Hispanics and Asians, can advance understanding of mechanisms behind racial and ethnic differences. Although ethnic comparisons of outcome across different studies can be helpful, comparability is enhanced when racial or ethnic groups are examined within the context of the same study with identical ascertainment of disease, measurement of risk factors and outcomes, and analytic strategy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / ethnology*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / psychology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / rehabilitation*
  • Asian People
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Humans
  • Mexican Americans
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States