Synaptic strength can be altered by a variety of pre- or postsynaptic modifications. Here we test the hypothesis that long-term depression (LTD) involves a decrease in the number of glutamate receptors that are clustered at individual synapses in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons. Similar to a prominent form of LTD observed in hippocampal slices, LTD in hippocampal cultures required NMDA receptor activation and was accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that induction of LTD caused a concurrent decrease in the number of AMPA receptors clustered at synapses but had no effect on synaptic NMDA receptor clusters. These results suggest that a subtype-specific redistribution of synaptic glutamate receptors contributes to NMDA receptor-dependent LTD.