End piece: reflections on the treatment of anger

J Clin Psychol. 1999 Mar;55(3):365-79. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-4679(199903)55:3<365::aid-jclp8>3.0.co;2-3.


Research on the nature of anger and how it differs from other emotions is reviewed. Dimensions that differentiate disturbed from normal anger are also discussed. Based on the research and results of several reviews of anger treatment, an ideal treatment package for the treatment of anger is presented. The components include: (i) addressing motivation; (ii) cultivating the therapeutic alliance; (iii) managing physiological arousal; (iv) fostering cognitive change; (v) implementing behavior change; (vi) providing environmental supports for change; (vii) teaching relapse-prevention skills; and (viii) initiating restitution and reintegration. Also, the articles describing experiential, self psychology, cognitive-behavioral, Buddhist, and systems approaches to anger are compared and contrasted. Each of these treatment approaches is compared with the ideal treatment components.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anger*
  • Buddhism
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Psychotherapy / methods*
  • Psychotherapy, Group
  • Religion and Psychology
  • Research
  • Self Psychology
  • Systems Theory
  • Treatment Outcome