Both Sp1 and Sp3 are responsible for p21waf1 promoter activity induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor in NIH3T3 cells

J Cell Biochem. 1999 Jun 1;73(3):291-302.


Histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced expression of p21WAF1 is p53 independent. In the present study, we provide evidence that trichostatin A (TSA), a specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can elevate H3 and H4 acetylation and p21WAF1 expression in NIH3T3 cells at first. To identify the transcription factor which is responsible for histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced expression of p21WAF1 and understand the potential events occurred during this process, we analyze the response of the mouse p21WAF1 promoter to TSA in detail. The region responsive to TSA treatment in the p21 promoter is located -100 bp upstream from transcription initiation site and contains a GC-box. The mutation introduced into this GC-box decreases most of the basal and TSA-induced promoter activity. The results from gel-shift assay show that Sp1 and Sp3 bind to this GC-rich region. Cotransfection with Sp1 and/or Sp3 expression constructs elevate both basal and induced promoter activity, and this elevation is dependent on the present of the GC-box. By contrast, cotransfection with reverse oriented Sp1 or Sp3 cDNA decreased basal and induced-promoter activity, as well as GC-box dependency. These findings provide physical and functional evidence which strongly indicated that both Sp1 and Sp3 are responsible for TSA-induced transactivation of the murine p21WAF1 promoter in NIH3T3 cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Nucleus / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins / physiology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors*
  • Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology
  • Luciferases / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Models, Genetic
  • Mutagenesis
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor / physiology*
  • Sp3 Transcription Factor
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transfection


  • Cdkn1a protein, mouse
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Cyclins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Hydroxamic Acids
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Sp3 protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factors
  • Sp3 Transcription Factor
  • trichostatin A
  • Luciferases