Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacteria

Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999 Apr;2(2):195-201. doi: 10.1016/S1369-5274(99)80034-4.


Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a regulatory mechanism by which the expression of genes required for the utilization of secondary sources of carbon is prevented by the presence of a preferred substrate. This enables bacteria to increase their fitness by optimizing growth rates in natural environments providing complex mixtures of nutrients. In most bacteria, the enzymes involved in sugar transport and phosphorylation play an essential role in signal generation leading through different transduction mechanisms to catabolite repression. The actual mechanisms of regulation are substantially different in various bacteria. The mechanism of lactose-glucose diauxie in Escherichia coli has been reinvestigated and was found to be caused mainly by inducer exclusion. In addition, the gene encoding HPr kinase, a key component of CCR in many bacteria, was discovered recently.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Biological*
  • Base Composition
  • Carbon / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Repression
  • Escherichia coli / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria / physiology
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System / metabolism


  • Carbon
  • Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System