When protons attack: microbial strategies of acid adaptation

Curr Opin Microbiol. 1999 Apr;2(2):170-4. doi: 10.1016/S1369-5274(99)80030-7.


Inducible tolerance to acidic and alkaline environments is recognized as an important survival strategy for many prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Recent developments in understanding this phenomenon include the identification of regulatory genes, specific tolerance mechanisms and genes associated with tolerance. In addition, there is significant evidence linking pH responses with virulence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acids / metabolism*
  • Adaptation, Biological*
  • Escherichia coli / physiology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Protons
  • Salmonella / physiology


  • Acids
  • Protons