By stratified cluster random sampling, a prospective study on the accidental deaths of 0-14 years old children during 1994-1995 wsa carried on in a population size of 2.29 millions in four citys and nine counties in Jiangsu province. Results showed that the average mortality of accidents was 53.0 per 10(5) among children aged 0 to 14 and accidental death was the leading cause of deaths taking up 37.6% among the deaths of the 0-14 years old. Accidental deaths ranked fourth, took up 15.3% in infancy deaths making up about 70% in their deaths, and ranked first in the age groups 1-4 and 5-14. The three leading causes of accidental deaths in the urban and rural area were drowning, accidental suffocation and motor vehicle injuries. Accidental suffocation was the number one cause of accidental death in infants, making up 85% of the total accidental deaths. Drowning was the leading cause of accidental deaths in 1-4 and 5-14-year-old children, making up 70% and 50% of accidental deaths respectively. Motor vehicle injuries took the lead among accidental deaths in the cities.