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Comparative Study
, 3 (1), 49-55

The Effects of Preperitoneal Carbon Dioxide Insufflation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Pigs

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Comparative Study

The Effects of Preperitoneal Carbon Dioxide Insufflation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Pigs

M W Blaney et al. JSLS.

Abstract

Background and objectives: Although considerable experimental and clinical knowledge exists on the physiology of pneumoperitoneum, insufflation of the preperitoneal space has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the physiology associated with preperitoneal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation in a porcine model.

Methods: Eleven pigs weighing 35 to 45 kg were anesthetized and placed on mechanical ventilation. A pulmonary artery catheter and an arterial line were inserted. Balloon dissection of the preperitoneal space and insufflation to 10 mm Hg for 1.5 hours, followed by an increase to 15 mm Hg for an additional 1.5 hours, was performed. Hemodynamic and arterial blood gas values were determined every 15 minutes throughout the stabilization and three-hour insufflation period. Hemodynamic parameters and blood gas values were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with respect to insufflation time and pressure.

Results: Analysis of hemodynamics (CO, CVP, PAD, PAS, PCWP) did not demonstrate statistical significance with respect to time. However, there was a statistical difference in CO (p=.01), CVP (p<.01), and PCWP (p=.034) when comparing a pressure of 15 mm Hg to a pressure of 10 or 0 mm Hg. The other parameters did not demonstrate significant differences among the three pressure groups. Arterial PCO2 and pH were highly significant with respect to time (p<.01 and P<.01, respectively) and among the pressure groups (p<.01 and P<.01, respectively).

Conclusions: Insufflation of the preperitoneal space with CO2 gas does not cause significant alterations in hemodynamics and blood gas changes at a pressure of 10 mm Hg. However, when a pressure of 15 mm Hg is used to insufflate this space, there is evidence of decreased pH and cardiac output, with elevated CVP and CO2 retention. This correlates with greater pneumodissection of the gas within the layers of the abdominal wall when elevated pressures are used.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
The pCO2 remained steady at an insufflation pressure of 10 mm Hg. When the insufflation pressure was increased to 15 mm Hg, a steady rise in the pCO2 was demonstrated.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
A corresponding drop in the pH was observed when the insufflation pressure was increased to 15 mm Hg.

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