A better understanding of the molecular changes associated with the onset and progression of prostate cancer may provide us with a rational basis for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Likewise, the recent identification of critical biochemical pathways, including angiogenesis, programmed cell death, cell adhesion and signal transduction, provide us with promising targets for therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, the identification and characterization of new tumor-specific antigens or prostate-cancer-specific gene promoters could be instrumental for the development of new treatment modalities. Many research groups are trying to identify genes that are involved in prostate cancer development and which may serve as new tumor markers and potential targets for therapy. In addition to prostate-specific antigen, prostate-specific membrane antigen and human kallikrein-2, the recently identified prostate stem cell antigen may also provide us with a new tool for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Our own studies led to the identification of DD3, a gene that is strongly overexpressed in human prostatic cancers and the expression of which appears to be restricted to the prostate. Further studies are necessary to establish the clinical usefulness of these new prostate-cancer-specific genes for the management of prostate cancer patients.