Tutorial in biostatistics. An introduction to hierarchical linear modelling

Stat Med. 1999 Apr 15;18(7):855-88. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0258(19990415)18:7<855::aid-sim117>3.0.co;2-7.


Hierarchical linear models are useful for understanding relationships in hierarchical data structures, such as patients within hospitals or physicians within hospitals. In this tutorial we provide an introduction to the technique in general terms, and then specify model notation and assumptions in detail. We describe estimation techniques and hypothesis testing procedures for the three types of parameters involved in hierarchical linear models: fixed effects, covariance components, and random effects. We illustrate the application using an example from the Type II Diabetes Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) study and use two popular PC-based statistical computing packages, HLM/2L and SAS Proc Mixed, to perform two-level hierarchical analysis. We compare output from the two packages applied to our example data as well as to simulated data. We elaborate on model interpretation and provide guidelines for model checking.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biometry*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Linear Models*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Patients / statistics & numerical data
  • Physicians / statistics & numerical data
  • Regression Analysis