Autosomal dominant medullary cystic disease (ADMCKD) is an interstitial nephropathy that has morphologic and clinical features similar to autosomal recessive nephronophthisis. The typical renal dysfunction associated with ADMCKD results mainly from a defect in urinary concentration ability, although results of urinalysis are normal. Recently, a locus on chromosome 1 was associated with ADMCKD, in DNA from two large Cypriot families, and genetic heterogeneity was inferred. We describe the genomewide linkage mapping of a new locus for medullary cystic disease, ADMCKD2, on chromosome 16p12 in a four-generation Italian pedigree. The family with ADMCKD2 fulfills the typical diagnostic criteria of ADMCKD, complicated by hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. Marker D16S3036 shows a maximum two-point LOD score of 3.68, and the defined critical region spans 10.5 cM, between D16S500 and SCNN1B1-2. Candidate genes included in the critical region are discussed.