Recent evidence suggests that a new member of the mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase/NAD glycohydrolase family, RT6, may be important in immune regulation. RT6 is expressed in two allelic forms and is present on post-thymic T cells in the rat. RT6-expressing T cells in the rat may have a regulatory role, a conclusion based on their ability to prevent autoimmune diabetes in the BB rat model of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This observation led to investigation of RT6 at a molecular and biochemical level resulting in the determination that RT6 protein exists as both glycosylated and non-glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell surface molecules. RT6, like many GPI-linked proteins, can mediate cell signal transduction events associated with T cell activation, and is also present in a soluble form in the circulation. The discovery that RT6 is an NAD glycohydrolase and auto-ADP-ribosyltransferase led to the ongoing investigations into the role that enzymatic activity may have in the immunoregulatory function of rat RT6+ T cells. A homologue of rat RT6, termed Rt6, has been identified in the mouse. Rt6 is predominately an ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme as determined using simple guanidino compounds (e.g. arginine) as ribose acceptors. Abnormalities in mouse Rt6 mRNA are associated with the expression of autoimmunity. In the present manuscript, we review recent data on RT6/Rt6, and discuss the potential mechanisms by which RT6-expressing cells, and perhaps RT6 protein itself, may mediate immune regulation.