Particle trace visualization of intracardiac flow using time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI

Magn Reson Med. 1999 Apr;41(4):793-9. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1522-2594(199904)41:4<793::aid-mrm19>;2-2.


The flow patterns in the human heart are complex and difficult to visualize using conventional two-dimensional (2D) modalities, whether they depict a single velocity component (Doppler echocardiography) or all three components in a few slices (2D phase contrast MRI). To avoid these shortcomings, a temporally resolved 3D phase contrast technique was used to derive data describing the intracardiac velocity fields in normal volunteers. The MRI data were corrected for phase shifts caused by eddy currents and concomitant gradient fields, with improvement in the accuracy of subsequent flow visualizations. Pathlines describing the blood pathways through the heart were generated from the temporally resolved velocity data, starting from user-specified locations and time frames. Flow trajectories were displayed as 3D particle traces, with simultaneous demonstration of morphologic 2D slices. This type of visualization is intuitive and interactive and may extend our understanding of dynamic and previously unrecognized patterns of intracardiac flow.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Heart / anatomy & histology
  • Heart / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Models, Theoretical