Current approaches to the management of prostate cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, or hormonal manipulation either individually or in combination. With an increase in understanding of the etiology and natural history of prostate cancer, the influence of dietary factors on the disease is becoming more evident. There have been a number of studies in this regard that have demonstrated a relationship between prostate cancer and numerous dietary constituents including vitamins. The fat-soluble vitamins A and D have both been found to affect the growth of prostate cancer in preclinical experiments. Of the two, vitamin D has been the focus of greater attention in recent years, and there are indications that it may be useful both in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. This article reviews the current literature in this area to determine if treatment with vitamin D would be a viable management alternative for the patient described in the case study.