Cortical spreading depression reversibly disrupts convulsive motor seizure expression in amygdala-kindled rats

Neuroscience. 1999;91(1):305-13. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4522(98)00656-3.


To determine the role of the frontal cortex in the generalization of limbic seizures, we first produced unilateral cortical spreading depression to reversibly suppress neuronal activity in the motor cortex and then triggered an amygdala-kindled seizure. Three minutes following induction of unilateral spreading depression, stimulation of the ipsilateral kindled amygdala produced only a brief electrographic seizure, and completely failed to produce the bilateral electrographic and clonic convulsive seizures that were normally present during control trials. A very different outcome occurred when unilateral spreading depression was induced in the cortex contralateral to the kindled amygdala. In these cases, the electrographic amygdala seizures were normal and bilateral like control trials, yet the clonic convulsive seizures were lateralized and appeared to be controlled by the non-depressed, kindled hemisphere. These lateralized convulsions were identical to those observed following forebrain commissurotomy, when direct communication between the frontal cortices was permanently severed. The results of the present study further define the pathways of temporal lobe seizure propagation, and highlight the important contribution frontal cortical regions provide to both the electrographic and convulsive expression of amygdala-kindled seizures by amplifying local seizures and projecting them into downstream brainstem and spinal cord circuits.

MeSH terms

  • Amygdala / anatomy & histology
  • Amygdala / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Cortical Spreading Depression / physiology*
  • Electroencephalography
  • Injections
  • Kindling, Neurologic / physiology*
  • Male
  • Motor Cortex / physiopathology
  • Potassium Chloride / administration & dosage
  • Potassium Chloride / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Long-Evans
  • Seizures / physiopathology*


  • Potassium Chloride