We have previously reported suggestive evidence for a locus on Chromosome (Chr) 7 that affects adiposity in F2 mice from a CAST/Ei x C57BL/6J intercross fed a high-fat diet. Here we characterize the effect of a high-fat (32.6 Kcal% fat) diet on male and female congenic mice with a C57BL/6J background and a CAST/Ei-derived segment on Chr 7. Adiposity index (AI) and weights of certain fat pads were approximately 50% lower in both male and female congenic mice than in control C57BL/6J mice, and carcass fat content was significantly reduced. The reduction of fat depot weights was not seen, however, in congenic animals fed a low-fat chow diet (12 Kcal% fat). The congenic segment is approximately 25 cM in length, extending from D7Mit213 to D7Mit41, and includes the tub, Ucp2 and Ucp3, genes, all of which are candidate genes for this effect. Some polymorphisms have been found on comparing c-DNA sequences of the Ucp2 gene from C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice. These results suggest that one or more genes present in the congenic segment modulate the susceptibility to fat deposition on feeding a high-fat diet. We were unable to show any significant difference between the energy intakes of the congenic and the control C57BL/6J mice on the high-fat diet. Also, measurements of energy expenditure in male mice at 6 weeks of age, during the first 2 weeks of exposure to the high-fat diet, failed to show any differences between control and congenic animals.