Immunochemical studies on the specificity of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) agglutinin

Carbohydr Res. 1976 Oct;51(1):107-18. doi: 10.1016/s0008-6215(00)84040-9.


The specificity of purified, peanut agglutinin has been studied immunochemically by quantitative precipitin and inhibition assays. The lectin showed substantial differences in precipitating with blood-group substances of the same specificity. Of the B substances tested, horse 4 25% completely precipitated the lectin, Beach phenol insoluble failed to interact, and PM phenol insoluble gave an intermediate reaction. The lectin did not precipitate with A1 substances, with hog gastric mucin A + H substance, or with A2 substance WG phenol insoluble. Another A2 substance, cyst 14 phenol insoluble, precipitated approximately 2/3 of the lectin. Of the H substances, Tighe phenol insoluble was inactive, JS phenol insoluble precipitated poorly, and morgan standard H precipitated about 80% of the lectin. However, first stage of Smith degradation, as well as Pl fractions obtained by mild acid hydrolysis of blood-group substances, gave products which precipitated strongly. The lectin was also completely precipitated by all precursor blood-group substances, as well as by cows 21 and 26, all having strong I-Ma, I-Ort, I-Step, and I-Da activities. Cow 18, which does not possess significant blood-group I activity, precipitated very slightly. Fractions of blood-group substances N-1 (Lea) and Tij (B) obtained by precipitation from 90 percent phenol at higher concentrations of ethanol interacted better with peanut agglutinin. These differences in activity are ascribable to a heterogeneity resulting from incomplete biosynthesis of carbohydrate side-chains of blood-group substances, particularly resulting in variations in the numbers of DGalbeta1 leads to 3DGalNAc or DGalbeta1 leads to 4DGlcNAc determinants. The agglutinin reacted with the hydatid cyst P1 glycoprotein, as well as with the previously studied antifreeze and sialic acid-free alpha1 acid glycoproteins, but not with pneumococcus type XIV polysaccharide. Inhibition of precipitation showed the lectin to be most specific for the disaccharide DGalbeta1 leads to 3DGalNAc, which is 14, 55, and 90 times as active as DGalbeta1 leads to 4DGlcNAc, DGal, and DGalbeta1 leads to 3DGlcNAc, respectively. DGalbeta1 leads to 3N-acetyl-D-galactosaminitol has approximately 1/25th the activity of DGalbeta1 leads to 3DGalNAc. Substitutions of DGlcNAc or LFuc on the DGal of active inhibitors completely blocked the activity, in line with the assumption that the combining site of the peanut lectin is a partial cavity. The oligosaccharides DGalbeta1 leads to 4DGlcNAcbeta1 leads to 6-hexane-1,2,4,5,6-pentol(s) and DGalbeta1 leads to 3[DGalbeta1 leads to 4DGlcNAcbeta1 leads to 6]N-acetyl-D-galactosaminitol showed the same inhibitory activity as DGalbeta1 leads to 4DGlcNAc, suggesting that the combining site of the peanut agglutinin may not be complementary to more than a disaccharide...

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arachis
  • Binding Sites, Antibody
  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Cattle
  • Female
  • Gastric Mucosa
  • Hemagglutination Tests
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Lectins*
  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Ovarian Cysts
  • Plant Lectins
  • Precipitin Tests
  • Saliva
  • Swine


  • Blood Group Antigens
  • Lectins
  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Plant Lectins