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. 1999 Apr 23;449(2-3):120-4.
doi: 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00416-0.

Human Growth Hormone Site 2 Lactogenic Activity Requires a Distant tyrosine164

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Human Growth Hormone Site 2 Lactogenic Activity Requires a Distant tyrosine164

K M Duda et al. FEBS Lett. .
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Abstract

Comparison of crystallographic structures of human growth hormone, either bound to the prolactin receptor or free of receptors, reveals that human growth hormone binding to the prolactin receptor at site 1 is associated with a structural change in human growth hormone that influences the organization of residues which constitute site 2. We have identified Tyr164 as a residue that is critical for the propagation of this structural rearrangement. Tyr164 is a structural epitope for site 1 and is distal to site 2. Mutation of Tyr164 to glutamic acid (Y164E) does not affect the somatotrophic activity, absorption or fluorescence spectra or binding to the human prolactin receptor when compared to wild-type human growth hormone, indicating the subtle effects of the mutation. Lactogenic assays using extended concentrations of Y164E human growth hormone produce dose-response curves that are characterized by a right-shifted agonist phase and an unchanged antagonist phase when compared to wild-type human growth hormone. These results indicate that Tyr164 is required for the lactogenic activity of human growth hormone and that mutation to glutamic acid disrupts the lactogenic function of site 2.

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