Electrocardiographic manifestations: benign early repolarization

J Emerg Med. 1999 May-Jun;17(3):473-8. doi: 10.1016/s0736-4679(99)00010-4.


Early repolarization, also known as benign early repolarization (BER) or normal variant, is noted in approximately 1% of the population and in up to 48% of patients seen in the Emergency Department with chest pain. BER represents a benign variant of the normal electrocardiogram and is one of several syndromes producing electrocardiographic ST segment elevation (STE). The electrocardiogram (EKG) findings of BER include diffuse or widespread ST segment elevation, upward concavity of the initial portion of the ST segment, notching or slurring of the terminal QRS complex, and concordant T waves of large amplitude. This article focuses on BER and includes the electrocardiographic findings useful in making the diagnosis as well as distinguishing BER from other STE syndromes.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / diagnosis*
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / epidemiology
  • Cocaine-Related Disorders / complications
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Electrocardiography*
  • Emergencies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / diagnosis*