Estimates of the prevalence of diabetic neuropathy range from 10% to 90% of the diabetic population, depending on the criteria used to define neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a wide range of abnormalities affecting both the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems and causes considerable injury and death. Neurologic complications occur equally in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as various forms of acquired diabetes. In this overview, we present and discuss the most recent approaches to the treatment of the common forms of diabetic neuropathy, including distal symmetric, proximal motor, and autonomic neuropathy. We also provide the reader with algorithms for recognition and management of common pain and entrapment syndromes, and a global approach to recognition of syndromes requiring specialized treatments based upon our improved understanding of their causes.