Team leadership: network differences in women's and men's instrumental and expressive relations

Adm Policy Ment Health. 1999 Jan;26(3):169-90. doi: 10.1023/a:1021394113278.


Recent studies have emphasised differences in leadership styles between women and men. Women have an "interactive" leadership style while men are more "directive" and "authoritative." Social network analysis is used to examine differences in eight mental health case management teams, half formally supervised by women and half by men. The techniques used are graphical displays and measures of centrality. Results show male leaders as the most central team member for both instrumental and expressive relations. Female leaders, however, do not adhere to a single leadership style. Team centralisation also differs with gender composition of teams influencing leadership differences.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Authoritarianism
  • California
  • Case Management
  • Female
  • Group Processes*
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Interprofessional Relations*
  • Leadership*
  • Male
  • Men / psychology*
  • Mental Health Services
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Psychological
  • Patient Care Team / organization & administration*
  • Sex Factors
  • Women / psychology*