Gender differences in response to nicotine replacement therapy: objective and subjective indexes of tobacco withdrawal

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 May;7(2):135-44. doi: 10.1037//1064-1297.7.2.135.


K. A. Perkins (1996) recently proposed that nicotine reinforcement controls smoking to a greater degree among men than women and that consequently, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) during smoking cessation should benefit men more than women. The authors tested this hypothesis. Polysomnographic measures of sleep and self-report indexes of tobacco withdrawal were collected pre- and postcessation from an active nicotine patch group and a placebo patch group in a randomized, double-blind clinical trial (N = 34). Objective sleep parameters supported Perkins's hypothesis and indicated that among women, NRT may be less effective at suppressing certain withdrawal responses compared with men and may produce some iatrogenic effects. Valid and reliable self-report measures of withdrawal did not reveal gender differences in response to NRT.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Affect / drug effects
  • Aged
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hunger / drug effects
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nicotine / therapeutic use*
  • Nicotinic Agonists / therapeutic use
  • Polysomnography
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Sleep / drug effects
  • Sleep Stages / drug effects
  • Smoking / drug therapy*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / drug therapy*


  • Nicotinic Agonists
  • Nicotine