The human BTG2 gene is one of the four members of a newly identified antiproliferative genes family. BTG2 was first described as an immediate early gene whose expression is induced in response to mitogenic as well as differentiative and antiproliferative factors. More recently, we have shown that BTG2 expression is also induced in response to genotoxic stress through a p53-dependent mechanism. Experimental overexpression of the BTG2 gene in NIH3T3 and PC12 cells leads to a partial inhibition of cell proliferation. BTG2 protein physically interacts with the protein CAF1, an element of a general transcription complex, and with a protein-arginine N-methyl transferase, PRMT1. We speculate on the role of BTG2 as a modulator of the intracellular signal transduction cascade.