Pyrethroid cross resistance spectrum among populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1999 Mar;15(1):53-9.


Field samples of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire were tested with 5 pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin), 1 pseudo-pyrethroid (etofenprox), and an organochlorine (DDT). With the use of World Health Organization diagnostic tests, 5 out of 6 samples were found cross-resistant to these insecticides. A strong decrease in knockdown effect and mortality was also observed when testing deltamethrin-impregnated nettings. With a polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific alleles diagnostic test, resistance was found associated with the presence of a kdr mutation. The strong correlation between kdr allelic frequency and resistance to DDT or etofenprox indicated that kdr was the main resistance factor for these 2 insecticides. On the contrary, a lower correlation was observed between kdr frequency and resistance to 4 of the 5 pyrethroids tested, suggesting that another mechanism was also involved, likely a metabolic detoxification. These results point out the necessity to monitor pyrethroid resistance and the presence of kdr before implementation of any impregnated bed-net programs for malaria control.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Animals
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Gene Frequency
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Mosquito Control* / methods
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrethrins*


  • Nitriles
  • Pyrethrins
  • decamethrin