The activities of the enzymes related to glutathione synthesis, degradation, and functions as well as reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes were analyzed in different brain regions, such as cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, brainstem, thalamus, and hypothalamus after 1 and 3 mo of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Parallel studies were also made in age-matched control rats and insulin-treated diabetic rats. The content of glutathione (GSH) and its synthesizing enzyme gamma-glutamylcystein synthetase and also superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities (reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes) were significantly decreased from almost all the brain regions studied. However, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP), and glutamine synthetase (GS) activities were increased in the diabetic rat brain. Insulin treatment to the diabetic rats resulted in partial to full recovery in these enzymes activities. The present results emphasize the potentially serious alterations of brain free radical scavenger system in uncontrolled Type I diabetes.