Purpose: To summarize and provide a critical review of worksite health promotion program evaluations published between 1968 and 1994 that addressed the health impact of worksite smoking cessation programs and smoking policies.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search conducted under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 53 smoking cessation program evaluation reports, of which 41 covered worksite single-topic cessation programs. Nine additional reports were located through manual search of citations from published reports and reviews. These 50 reports covered 52 original data-based studies of cessation programs. The search produced 19 reports for tobacco policy evaluations, of which 12 addressed health impact. An additional 17 reports were located by the authors. These 29 reports covered 29 studies of policy impact.
Summary of important findings: Smoking cessation group programs were found to be more effective than minimal treatment programs, although less intensive treatment, when combined with high participation rates, can influence the total population. Tobacco policies were found to reduce cigarette consumption at work and worksite environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.
Conclusions: The literature is rated suggestive for group and incentive interventions; indicative for minimal interventions, competitions, and medical interventions; and acceptable for the testing of incremental effects. Because of the lack of experimental control, the smoking policy literature is rated as weak, although there is strong consistency in results for reduced cigarette consumption and decreased exposure to ETS at work.