Therapeutic angiogenesis is the controlled induction or stimulation of new blood vessel formation to reduce unfavourable tissue effects caused by local hypoxia and to enhance tissue repair. The effects of ultrasound on wound healing, chronic ulcers, fracture healing and osteoradionecrosis may be explained by the enhancement of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify which cytokines and angiogenesis factors are induced by ultrasound in vitro. Two ultrasound machines were evaluated, a "traditional" (1 MHz, pulsed 1:4, tested at four intensities), and a "long wave" machine (45 kHz, continuous, also tested at four intensities). The ultrasound was applied to human mandibular osteoblasts, gingival fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (monocytes). The following cytokines and angiogenesis factors were assayed by ELISA techniques: interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-8, fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).A slight stimulation of IL-1beta was noted in all cell types. There was no difference in the IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels. The angiogenesis-related cytokines, IL-8 and bFGF, were significantly stimulated in osteoblasts, and VEGF was significantly stimulated in all cell types. Both ultrasound machines produced similar results, and the optimum intensities were 0.1 and 0. 4 W/cm2 (SATA) with 1 MHz ultrasound, and 15 and 30 mW/cm2 (SATA) with 45 kHz ultrasound.The results show that therapeutic ultrasound stimulates the production of angiogenic factors such as IL-8, bFGF and VEGF. This may be one of the mechanisms through which therapeutic ultrasound induces angiogenesis and healing.
Copyright 1999 Academic Press.