Altered activity of heme biosynthesis pathway enzymes in individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in Mexico

Arch Toxicol. 1999 Mar;73(2):90-5. doi: 10.1007/s002040050592.


Our objective was to evaluate the activities of some enzymes of the heme biosynthesis pathway and their relationship with the profile of urinary porphyrin excretion in individuals exposed chronically to arsenic (As) via drinking water in Region Lagunera, Mexico. We selected 17 individuals from each village studied: Benito Juarez, which has current exposure to 0.3 mg As/l; Santa Ana, where individuals have been exposed for more than 35 years to 0.4 mg As/l, but due to changes in the water supply (in 1992) exposure was reduced to its current level (0.1 mg As/l), and Nazareno, with 0.014 mg As/l. Average arsenic concentrations in urine were 2058, 398, and 88 microg As/g creatinine, respectively. The more evident alterations in heme metabolism observed in the highly exposed individuals were: (1) small but significant increases in porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) activities in peripheral blood erythrocytes; (2) increases in the urinary excretion of total porphyrins, mainly due to coproporphyrin III (COPROIII) and uroporphyrin III (UROIII); and (3) increases in the COPRO/URO and COPROIII/COPROI ratios. No significant changes were observed in uroporphyrinogen III synthetase (UROIII-S) activity. The direct relationships between enzyme activities and urinary porphyrins, suggest that the increased porphyrin excretion was related to PBG-D, whereas the increased URO-D activity would enhance coproporphyrin synthesis and excretion at the expense of uroporphyrin. None of the human studies available have reported the marked porphyric response and enzyme inhibition observed in rodents. In conclusion, chronic As exposure alters human heme metabolism; however the severity of the effects appears to depend on characteristics of exposure not yet fully characterized.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arsenic / toxicity*
  • Arsenic / urine
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Enzymes / urine*
  • Female
  • Fluorides / analysis
  • Heme / biosynthesis*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase / urine
  • Male
  • Mexico
  • Porphyrins / urine
  • Time Factors
  • Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase / urine


  • Enzymes
  • Porphyrins
  • Heme
  • Creatinine
  • Hydroxymethylbilane Synthase
  • Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase
  • Arsenic
  • Fluorides