Sarcoid-like pulmonary disorder in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 Jun;159(6):2009-13. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.159.6.9807152.


We report two cases of HIV-infected patients who presented with diffuse interstitial micronodular lesions on chest X-ray after institution of protease inhibitor-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Granulomatous pulmonary disorder mimicking sarcoidosis was diagnosed on histopathological studies revealing noncaseating granuloma and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis showing an intense CD4(+) lymphocyte alveolitis. Causative agents such as infectious organisms and environmental compounds were excluded. The relationship between sarcoid-like reaction and immune reconstitution under HAART is discussed.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Granuloma, Respiratory Tract / chemically induced*
  • Granuloma, Respiratory Tract / pathology*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lung Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Lung Diseases / pathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sarcoidosis / pathology*


  • Anti-HIV Agents