The HCFA ESRD Core Indicators Project is designed to assess several key indicators of care in peritoneal dialysis patients, including anemia management. Information on hematocrit levels, epoetin alfa dosing, estimates of iron stores, and iron therapy as obtained in a national sample of 1,219 peritoneal dialysis patients are described. The average hematocrit was 32.8% +/- 3.8%, and severe anemia (hematocrit < 25%) occurred in 1.4% of PD patients. The mean weekly epoetin alfa dose was 134.6 U/kg. In general, there was an inverse relationship between hematocrit and epoetin alfa doses. Most (83%) of PD patients received iron therapy, with only 8% of patients receiving intravenous iron. The mean serum ferritin was 303 ng/mL, with 64% of patients having a ferritin greater than 100 ng/mL. The mean transferrin saturation was 28%, with 60% of patients having a value of less than 20%. There was an inverse relationship between serum ferritin levels and hematocrit but no relationship between hematocrit and transferrin. It is concluded that there could be improvement in the epoetin alfa and iron management in many patients.