Purpose: To evaluate the use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for preoperative embolization of craniofacial arteriovenous malformation.
Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with craniofacial arteriovenous malformation (forehead [n = 9], deep facial [n = 3], occipital [n = 1], or lip [n = 1] lesion) were treated with injection of NBCA. Forehead lesions were supplied by ophthalmic (n = 6) and/or superficial temporal arteries (n = 7); and facial and scalp lesions, by bilateral internal maxillary (n = 4), facial (n = 2), and/or occipital arteries (n = 1). Lesions were percutaneously punctured with a 20-gauge needle in the area of arteriovenous connection. Direct angiography was performed before and after compression of venous drainage, and NBCA diluted 30%-50% with iodized oil was injected during venous compression.
Results: Postembolization arteriograms showed that six lesions were completely devascularized after single or multiple (one to nine) injections, and five were effectively devascularized (> or = 90%). Although three lesions were 60%-70% devascularized after injection, two of these were successfully extirpated with no notable blood loss. In nine patients, the ophthalmic arterial supply had disappeared after embolization. There were no procedure-related complications.
Conclusion: Direct-puncture embolization with NBCA is an effective and safe technique for preoperative devascularization of craniofacial arteriovenous malformation. For safe and effective devascularization, compression of draining venous channels is thought to be important.