The protection provided by one or two doses of measles vaccine was compared, as was the effect of the timing of delivery of the doses on the protection provided. A total of 5542 measles cases occurred in Ontario, Canada, between January 1990 and December 1996. Three controls per case were matched for age and residence. Children who received a single dose at age 15 months and older were 5 times more likely to contract measles than were children who received two doses of vaccine after their first birthday. Among children given two doses of vaccines, the risk of measles was 3 times greater in those who had their first vaccination at age 11 months compared with children who first received vaccine after age 1 year, but the protection was independent of the interval between doses. Delaying the second dose >6 months after the first does not increase protection.