SWiP-1: novel SOCS box containing WD-protein regulated by signalling centres and by Shh during development

Mech Dev. 1999 Apr;82(1-2):79-94. doi: 10.1016/s0925-4773(99)00014-3.


We describe a novel chick WD-protein, cSWiP-1, expressed in somitic mesoderm and developing limb buds as well as in other embryonic structures where Hedgehog signalling has been shown to play a role. Using embryonic manipulations we show that in somites cSWiP-1 expression integrates two signals originating from structures adjacent to the segmental mesoderm: a positive signal from the notochord and a negative signal from intermediate and/or lateral mesoderm. In explant cultures of somitic mesoderm, Shh protein induces cSWiP-1, while a blocking antibody to Shh inhibits the induction of cSWiP-1 by the notochord. These results show that the positive signal from the notochord is mediated by Shh. We also show that in limb buds cSWiP-1 is upregulated by ectopic Shh. This occurs in about the same time period as upregulation of BMP2, placing cSWiP-1 among the earliest markers for the change of limb pattern caused by ectopic Shh. We also describe a human homologue of cSWiP-1 and a mouse gene, mSWiP-2, that is more distantly related to SWiP-1, suggesting that SWiP-1 belongs to a novel subfamily of WD-proteins.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / metabolism
  • Chick Embryo
  • Embryonic Induction / genetics
  • Embryonic Induction / physiology
  • Extremities / embryology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Notochord / embryology
  • Notochord / metabolism
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / physiology*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Signal Transduction
  • Somites / cytology
  • Somites / metabolism
  • Species Specificity
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta*


  • BMP2 protein, human
  • Bmp2 protein, mouse
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins
  • SHH protein, human
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • WSB1 protein, human

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF072879
  • GENBANK/AF072880
  • GENBANK/AF072881