T lymphocytes have an inherent ability to migrate along a chemotactic gradient, which enables them to exit the bloodstream and reach different tissues. Motile T cells display a polarized morphology with two distinct cell compartments: the leading edge and the uropod. During cell polarization, chemoattractant receptors, cell-adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal proteins are redistributed within these cellular compartments. The polarity of T lymphocytes changes during the establishment of antigen-specific cell-cell interactions, and this involves rearrangement of cytoskeletal proteins. This article discusses the regulation of these cytoskeletal rearrangements, and their role in the activation, migration and effector function of T cells.