Self-esteem and depression: ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring

J Affect Disord. Jan-Mar 1999;52(1-3):41-9. doi: 10.1016/s0165-0327(98)00042-1.

Abstract

Objective: The association between maternal bonding style, offspring low self-esteem and offspring depression status was assessed by maternal depression status.

Subjects: Sixty mothers and 137 offspring were independently assessed over the course of a ten year follow-up study.

Method: Assessments included the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-LA), Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children (K-SADS), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI).

Results: Among daughters of mothers with a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was associated with daughter low self-esteem which was associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up. Among daughters of mothers without a history of depression, maternal affectionless-control was not associated with daughter low self-esteem, which was not associated with daughter depression at ten year follow-up but which was associated with a history of childhood depression. None of these associations were found to be significant among sons.

Limitations: As self-esteem was not measured at ten year follow-up, among offspring the stability of self-esteem could not be assessed, nor could the association between adult self-esteem and adult depression.

Conclusion: Clinical presentation of low self-esteem in girls should be assessed in the context of maternal depression status.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Depressive Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Depressive Disorder / psychology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Mother-Child Relations*
  • Mothers / psychology*
  • Object Attachment
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Concept*
  • Severity of Illness Index