HIV-positive persons face significant challenges to disclosing their HIV serostatus, and failure to disclose can place their sex partners at risk. The current study examined HIV serostatus disclosure in 266 sexually active HIV-positive persons recruited from the community. Results showed that 41% had not disclosed their HIV serostatus to sex partners. Men who had not disclosed to partners indicated lower rates of condom use during anal intercourse and scored significantly lower on a measure of self-efficacy for condom use compared to individuals who had disclosed. Emotional distress was also greatest among persons who had not recently disclosed. Having not disclosed to sex partners was closely associated with lower self-efficacy for disclosing, with women who had not disclosed reporting the lowest disclosure self-efficacy. As people living with HIV-AIDS are encouraged to disclose their HIV status, interventions are needed to facilitate disclosure decision making.