Objectives: We evaluated the impact of individualized breast cancer risk counseling on mammography use among women at risk for breast cancer.
Methods: Participants (n = 508) were randomized to the breast cancer risk counseling intervention or a general health education control intervention, and 85% completed follow-up.
Results: In multivariate modeling, a significant group-by-education interaction demonstrated that among less-educated participants, breast cancer risk counseling led to reduced mammography use. There was no intervention effect among the more-educated participants.
Conclusions: These results suggest that standard breast cancer risk counseling could have an adverse impact on the health behaviors of less-educated women.