Primary care physicians should be coordinators, not gatekeepers

JAMA. 1999 Jun 2;281(21):2045-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.281.21.2045.


Primary care gatekeeping, in which the goal of the primary care physician (PCP) is to reduce patient referrals to specialists and thereby reduce costs, is not an adequate system in which to practice medicine. However, returning to the pre-managed care model of uncoordinated open access to specialists is a poor solution. The primary care model should be retained, but PCPs should be transformed from gatekeepers into coordinators of care, in which the goal of the PCP is to integrate both primary and specialty care to improve quality. Changes in the PCP's daily work process, as well as the referral and payment processes, need to be implemented to reach this goal. This model would eliminate the requirement that referrals to specialists be authorized by the primary care physician or managed care organization. Financial incentives would be needed, eg, to encourage PCPs to provide management of complex cases and discourage both over-referral and underreferral to specialists. Budgeting specialists should control excess costs that might be created by the elimination of the primary care gatekeeper. Pilot projects are needed to test and refine this model of PCP as coordinator of care.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Case Management*
  • Continuity of Patient Care / organization & administration
  • Cost Control
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Medicine
  • Models, Organizational
  • Physician's Role*
  • Physicians, Family*
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care*
  • Referral and Consultation / economics
  • Referral and Consultation / organization & administration*
  • Specialization
  • United States