We report a Japanese family with ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED). Gene analysis revealed a single nucleotide substitution of T to C at nucleotide position 2 in the alpha-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA). This substitution abolishes the start codon. The proband and his affected sister were homozygous for this mutation, and their serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations were remarkably reduced. Relations between the mutations and clinical features are discussed.