Objective: To use the Chambless criteria for empirically supported treatments and determine if any interventions for procedure-related pain in children and adolescents can be designated as "well established," "probably efficacious," or "promising."
Methods: The Chambless criteria were applied to 13 treatment outcome studies identified by a comprehensive literature review.
Results: A detailed summary is provided for each study, including the following information: citation, subjects, diagnostic criteria, baseline, experimental design, assessment measures, treatment protocol, outcome, and follow-up.
Conclusions: Cognitive behavioral therapy is a "well-established treatment" for procedure-related pain in children and adolescents. Treatment includes breathing exercises and other forms of relaxation and distraction, imagery and other forms of cognitive coping skills, filmed modeling, reinforcement/incentive, behavioral rehearsal, and active coaching by a psychologist, parent, and/or medical staff member. I discuss future challenges for biobehavioral research and practice in the area of procedure-related pain.