Occupational, environmental, and life-style factors associated with the risk of hematolymphopoietic malignancies in women

Am J Ind Med. 1999 Jul;36(1):60-9. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(199907)36:1<60::aid-ajim9>3.0.co;2-z.


Background: The etiology of lymphomas, leukemias, and multiple myeloma is still largely unknown. The known risk factors (ionizing radiation, solvent exposure, pesticide exposure, immunosuppression) explain only a small proportion of the cases that occur.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter population-based case-control study on hematolymphopoietic malignancies in Italy and interviewed 2,011 women (1,183 cases and 828 controls).

Results: There was a suggestion of a positive association between smoking and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma + chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A slight increased risk of leukemias was observed among women using permanent hair dye. Housewives were at increased risk for leukemia and multiple myeloma. The risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas + chronic lymphocytic leukemia, leukemias, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin's disease increased among women employed as hairdressers and textile workers. Teachers were at increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas + chronic lymphocytic leukemia, leukemias, and Hodgkin's disease.

Conclusions: These results confirm previous associations and may provide additional clues to some determinants of hematolymphopoietic malignancies in women.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Educational Status
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Hair Dyes / adverse effects
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Hematologic Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Leukemia / epidemiology
  • Leukemia / etiology*
  • Life Style*
  • Logistic Models
  • Lymphatic Diseases / epidemiology
  • Lymphatic Diseases / etiology*
  • Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • Lymphoma / etiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupations / classification
  • Occupations / statistics & numerical data
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Women's Health
  • Women, Working / statistics & numerical data


  • Hair Dyes